Further resources

If you’d like to find out more about inner speech, creative writing and reading, you might find the following resources useful:


Charles Fernyhough, (2016). The Voices Within: The history and science of how we talk to ourselves. Profile Books/Wellcome Collection.


Charles Fernyhough (2013). The Voices Within: The power of talking to yourselfNew Scientist.

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Peter Moseley (2014). Talking to ourselves: The science of the little voice in your headThe Guardian.

Ruairj J Mackenzie (2020). Inner speech, internal monologues and “hearing voices”: Exploring the conversations between our ears. Technology Networks.


Charles Fernyhough (2016). The Science of the Voices in your Head. The Royal Institution.


‘Voices in your head’, Radio Lab (2010).


Ben Alderson-Day and Charles Fernyhough (2015). Inner speech: Development, cognitive functions, phenomenology, and neurobiology. Psychological Bulletin.

Ben Alderson-Day, Susanne Weis, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Peter Moseley, David Smailes and Charles Fernyhough. (2016). The brain’s conversation with itself: Neural substrates of dialogic inner speechSocial Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience.

John Foxwell, Ben Alderson-Day, Charles Fernyhough and Angela Woods (2020). ‘I’ve learned I need to treat my characters like people’: Varieties of agency and interaction in Writers’ experiences of their Characters’ Voices. Consciousness and Cognition, 79, 102901.

Ben Alderson-Day, Marco Bernini and Charles Fernyhough (2017). Uncharted features and dynamics of reading: Voices, characters and crossings of experiencesConsciousness and Cognition, 49: 98-109.