Further resources

If you’d like to find out more about inner speech, creative writing and reading, you might find the following resources useful:


Charles Fernyhough, (2016). The Voices Within: The history and science of how we talk to ourselves. Profile Books/Wellcome Collection.


Charles Fernyhough (2013). The Voices Within: The power of talking to yourselfNew Scientist.

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Peter Moseley (2014). Talking to ourselves: The science of the little voice in your headThe Guardian.

Ruairj J Mackenzie (2020). Inner speech, internal monologues and “hearing voices”: Exploring the conversations between our ears. Technology Networks.

John Foxwell (2020). Many writers say they can actually hear the voices of their characters – here’s why. The Conversation.


Charles Fernyhough (2016). The Science of the Voices in your Head. The Royal Institution.


‘Voices in your head’, Radio Lab (2010).


Ben Alderson-Day and Charles Fernyhough (2015). Inner speech: Development, cognitive functions, phenomenology, and neurobiology. Psychological Bulletin.

Ben Alderson-Day, Susanne Weis, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Peter Moseley, David Smailes and Charles Fernyhough. (2016). The brain’s conversation with itself: Neural substrates of dialogic inner speechSocial Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience.

John Foxwell, Ben Alderson-Day, Charles Fernyhough and Angela Woods (2020). ‘I’ve learned I need to treat my characters like people’: Varieties of agency and interaction in Writers’ experiences of their Characters’ Voices. Consciousness and Cognition, 79, 102901.

Ben Alderson-Day, Marco Bernini and Charles Fernyhough (2017). Uncharted features and dynamics of reading: Voices, characters and crossings of experiencesConsciousness and Cognition, 49: 98-109.